Judo

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Judo is one of the very few sports, which is fully dynamic in nature. In judo, a judoka (judo player) needs to understand his/her strengths and weaknesses to select suitable basic techniques and to use them by analyzing their opponent’s style, strengths etc.

While keeping the basic principles and function of techniques intact, they may have to make some changes in their movements, method of gripping etc. This, in fact leads to a new form of application of a particular technique.

To certain extent, regional diversities, cultural and conventional differences also played a major role in the evolution of the sport of Judo. Methods and style of application of a technique were adopted by different countries, with necessary changes to fit into their culture and conventions and best utilization of their physical qualities. Needless to say, the constant evolution makes judo most dynamic and exciting.

Despite the fact of evolution, the basic technique of judo remains the same, and can be categorized into the following three broad categories:

– Nage Waza        – Throwing Techniques
– Katame Waza   – Grappling Techniques
– Atemi Waze      – Striking Techniques

The above categories can be further classified, based on its various aspects/actions.

Nage Waza

Nage waza consists of Tachi Waza (standing techniques) and Sutemi Waza (sacrifice techniques).

Considering the importance of the action of hands/hips/legs, Tachi Waza is again classified into, either Te Waza (hand techniques), Koshi Waza (hip techniques) or Ashi Waza (foot or leg techniques). This further classification is made on the basis of which part of the body plays the central role in executing the technique.

Sutemi Waza is generally known as Ma Sutemi Waza (supine sacrifice techniques), which involves taking a back-on-the-mat position. Sutemi Waza is also called Yoko Sutemi Waza (side sacrifIce techniques) if it involves taking a side-on-the-mat position.

Katame Waza

Katame Waza refers to grappling techniques and is comprised of:

[i] Osae-Komi Waza (hold-down techniques),

[ii] Shime Waza (strangling techniques) and

[iii] Kansetsu Waza (joint techniques).

As can be seen from the terminology, grappling of an opponent can be done, by locking his joints, or by applying hold down techniques (Osae Komi Waza) or by stangling techniques. . Sometimes, the term Ne Waza (mat work) is used parallel to Katame Waza.

Atemi Waza

This particular technique is usually practiced in kata and never in randori as making forceful contact with a vital point can consequently result in pain, loss of consciousness, coma, disablement or death.

Using Atemi Waza one disable his assailant by attacking. This attack can be in the form of striking, punching, chopping, thrusting or kicking using the fist, the knife edge of the hand, the fingertips, the elbow, the knee, the ball of the foot, the toes, the heel, the forehead or the back of the head.

Atemi Waza are further divided into Ude Waza (arm strikes), and Ashi Ate (leg strikes). In Ude Waza, assilant’s vital points are attacked with the hand or arm whereas in Ashi Ate, the leg or foot is used for attack.

The International Judo Federation has officially listed 66 different nage waza techniques, and 29 different Katame Waza techniques (9 Osae Komi waza, 11 Shime waza­, and 9 different Kansetsu waza).

NAGE WAZA – TACHI WAZA

TE-WAZA  
Seoi-nage Shoulder throw

SON

Tai-otoshi Body drop

TOS

Kata-guruma Shoulder wheel

KGU

Sukui-nage Scooping throw

SUK

Uki-otoshi Floating drop

UOT

Sumi-otoshi Corner drop

SOT

Obi-otoshi Belt drop

OOS

Seoi-otoshi Shoulder drop

SOO

Yama-arashi Mountain storm throw

YAS

Morote-gari Two-hands reap

MGA

Kuchiki-taoshi One-hand drop

KTA

Kibisu-gaeshi Heel trip

KIG

Uchi-mata-sukashi Innner thigh reaping throw slip

UMS

Kouchi-gaeshi Small inner reaping throw counter

KOU

Ippon-seoi-nage One-armed shoulder throw

ISN

Obitori-gaeshi Belt-grab throw

OTG

 
KOSHI-WAZA  
Uki-goshi Floating hip throw

UGO

O-goshi Large hip throw

OGO

Koshi-guruma Hip wheel

KOG

Tsurikomi-goshi Lift-pull hip throw

TKG

Harai-goshi Hip sweep

HRG

Tsuri-goshi Lifting hip throw

TGO

Hane-goshi Hip spring

HNG

Utsuri-goshi Hip shift

UTS

Ushiro-goshi Back hip throw

USH

Sode-tsurikomi-goshi Sleeve lift-pull hip throw

STG

ASHI-WAZA  
De-ashi-barai (-harai) Forward foot sweep

DAB

Hiza-guruma Knee wheel

HIZ

Sasae-tsurikomi-ashi Supporting foot lift-pull throw

STA

Osoto-gari Large outer reap

OSG

Ouchi-gari Large inner reap

OUG

Kosoto-gari Small outer reap

KSG

Kouchi-gari Small inner reap

KUG

Okuri-ashi-barai (-harai) Foot sweep

OAB

Uchi-mata Inner-thigh reaping throw

UMA

Kosoto-gake Small outer hook

KSK

Ashi-guruma Leg wheel

AGU

Harai-tsurikomi-ashi Lift-pull hoot sweep

HTA

O-guruma Large wheel

OGU

Osoto-guruma Large outer wheel

OGR

Osoto-otoshi Large outer drop

OSO

Tsubame-gaeshi Swallow counter

TSU

Osoto-gaeshi Large outer reaping throw counter

OGA

Ouchi-gaeshi Large inner reaping throw counter

OUC

Hane-goshi-gaeshi Hip spring counter

HGG

Harai-goshi-gaeshi Hip sweep counter

HGE

Uchi-mata-gaeshi Inner thigh reaping throw counter

UMG

 
 

NAGE WAZA – SUTEMI WAZA

MA-SUTEMI-WAZA  
Tomoe-nage Circular throw

TNG

Sumi-gaeshi Corner throw

SUG

Ura-nage Back throw

UNA

Hikikomi-gaeshi Pulling-down sacrifice throw

HKG

Tawara-gaeshi Bag of rice throw

TWG

YOKO-SUTEMI-WAZA  
Yoko-otoshi Side drop

YOT

Tani-otoshi Valley drop

TNO

Hane-makikomi Springing wraparound throw

HNM

Soto-makikomi Outer wraparound throw

SMK

Uki-waza Floating throw

UWA

Yoko-wakare Side separation

YWA

Yoko-guruma Side wheel

YGU

Yoko-gake Side body drop

YGA

Daki-wakare Rear trunk turnover

DWK

Uchi-makikomi Inner wraparound throw

UMK

Osoto-makikomi Large outside wraparound throw

OSM

Uchi-mata-makikomi Inner thigh wraparound throw

UMM

Harai-makikomi Hip sweep wraparound throw

HRM

Kouchi-makikomi Small inner wraparound throw

KUM

KATAME WAZA

OSAEKOMI-WAZA  
Kesa-gatame Scarf hold

KEG

Kuzure-kesa-gatame Modified scarf hold

KKE

Ushiro-kesa-gatame Reverse scarf hold

UKG

Kata-gatame Shoulder hold

KAG

Kami-shiho-gatame Top four-corner hold

KSH

Kuzure-kami-shiho-gatame Modified top four-corner hold

KKS

Yoko-shiho-gatame Side four-corner hold

YSG

Tate-shiho-gatame Straight four-corner hold

TSG

Uki-gatame Floating hold

UGT

SHIME-WAZA

 

Nami-juji-jime Normal cross strangle

NJJ

Gyaku-juji-jime Reverse cross strangle

GJJ

Kata-juji-jime Half cross strangle

KJJ

Hadaka-jime Naked strangle

HAD

Okuri-eri-jime Sliding collar strangle

OEJ

Kataha-jime Single-wing strangle

KHJ

Kata-te-jime One-hand strangle

KTJ

Ryo-te-jime Two-hands strangle

RYJ

Sode-guruma-jime Sleeve wheel strangle

SGJ

Tsukkomi-jime Thrusting strangle

TKJ

Sankaku-jime Triangular strangle

SAJ

 

 

KANSETSU-WAZA
Ude-garami Entangled arm lock

UGR

Ude-hishigi-juji-gatame Cross lock

JGT

Ude-hishigi-ude-gatame Arm lock

UGA

Ude-hishigi-hiza-gatame Knee lock

HIG

Ude-hishigi-waki-gatame Armpit lock

WAK

Ude-hishigi-hara-gatame Stomach lock

HGA

Ude-hishigi-ashi-gatame Leg lock

AGA

Ude-hishigi-te-gatame Hand lock

TGT

Ude-hishigi-sankaku-gatame Triangular lock

SGT

KINSHI WAZA

Kani-basami (Yoko-sutemi-waza) Scissors throw

KBA

Kawazu-gake (Yoko-sutemi-waza) One-leg entanglement drop

KWA

Do-jime (Shime-waza) Body scissors

DOJ

Ashi-garami (Kansetsu-waza) Entangled leg lock

AGR

 

Practically it is not possible for any judoka to master all these techniques. So, they identify a few, which suits them the most. When they learn the basics of these techniques, they gradually adopt them to match their body structure, style and ability for perfection.

If we analyze the recent trends in modern judo, we can identify a handful of throwing, pinning, chocking, and arm locking techniques, which has become more popular among players in recent years.

The following techniques have been identified by IJF, as Top Ten techniques/methods being used in the Judo competitions:

    1. Seoi Nage
    2. Tai Otoshi
    3. Soto Gari
    4. Harai Tsuri Komi Ashi
    5. Uchi Gari
    6. Uchi Mata
    7. Tomoe Nage
    8. Kata Guruma
    9. Pick Ups methods in the techniques
    10. Ura Nage